This French dragoon is distinguished from a regular cavalryman
by the musket with its butt lodged in a 'bucket'.
of the Boyne, 1690. English
Most artillery remained too cumbersome to be moved during
a battle; but during the reign of James II mobile 3-pounder
cannons were attached to foot regiments and were served by
soldiers drawn from their ranks. Detail from The Battle
of the Boyne, 1690 by Jan Wyck.
Officer's Mitre Cap of c. 1690.
Officers still had a large degree of freedom in their choice
of uniform, and grenadier company officers seem to have copied
the unusual styles of dress of their men. The grenadier cap
appeared in various styles: with hanging bags or hoods, high
conical points with tassels, or as decorated caps. This example
is some 8" tall and decorated with thistles, denoting Scottish
Soldiers of William III's Army, 1690's.
One has a soft, fur-trimmed cap, another a leather cap which
may resemble that worn by English fusiliers. Plug bayonets
and powder flasks are worn on a waistbelt. The musket locks
are hard to identify, and have anyway been drawn incorrectly,
fitted on the left hand side. Pen and watercolour by an unknown
and Dragoons, 1695. French
The dragoons had caps, leather gaiters and muskets with slings,
whereas the cavalrymen wore hats, reinforced boots and carried
carbines. Dragoons had colourful uniforms, but most cavalry
had grey with red cuffs. Engraving after Guérard.
Running the Gauntlet, 1695. French
This was the usual punishment for stealing from fellow-soldiers.
While exemplary punishment could be extremely severe, harsh
practices such as floggings were considered 'inhumane' as
normal punishment. Engraving after Guérard.
French soldiers near the town of Grey in Franche Comté,
during the Dutch War. Note the details of equipment - like
the haversacks either slung over a shoulder or held by two
straps. Detail of a print after Van der Meulen
Le Preste, Seigneur de Vauban, late 1690's.
One of the greatest military engineers in history. He
was made a marshal in 1703, conducted 53 sieges, built 33
strongholds and had nearly 300 others upgraded. He also wrote
many works and his treatises on the fortification, attack
and defense of cities are still considered classics in the
literature of the art of war.
of the Gardes Francaises, 1696. French
He wears the uniform introduced in 1685 - blue lined with
red, with white buttons and lace. Note the equipment, showing
the bullet bag and powder horn hanging from a buff shoulder
belt. The leather flap covering the bag was usually
in reddish-brown leather, decorated with the royal arms. Figure
from Giffart's Art Militaire Francais (1696) which
featured drill for musketeers, fusiliers and pikemen. From
1703, a new drill was introduced dealing with flintlock muskets
only, as the use of pikes and matchlocks had been abolished.